World Without You

"World Without You" is the fifth single from Belinda Carlisle's Heaven on Earth album, released in 1988.

cheryl cole Love Is Never Die

Love Never Dies is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber, lyrics by Glenn Slater and later Charles Hart, and book by Lloyd Webber, Slater and Ben Elton. It is a sequel to the Lloyd Webber musical The Phantom of the Opera. The plot is not based on the story-line in the original book by Gaston Leroux, and Lloyd Webber has stated "I don't regard this as a sequel – it's a stand-alone piece". The musical is set in 1907, which Lloyd Webber states is "ten years roughly after the end of the original Phantom," although the events of the original actually took place in 1881. Christine Daaé is invited to perform at Phantasma, a new attraction in Coney Island, by an anonymous impresario and, with her husband Raoul and son Gustave in tow, journeys to Brooklyn, unaware that it is the Phantom who has arranged her appearance in the popular beach resort. Although Lloyd Webber began working on Love Never Dies in 1990, it was not until 2007 that he began writing the music. The musical opened at the Adelphi Theatre in the West End on 9 March 2010 with previews from 22 February 2010. It was originally directed by Jack O'Brien and choreographed by Jerry Mitchell, however the show closed for four days in November 2010 for substantial re-writes, which were overseen by Lloyd Webber, and opened with new direction from Bill Kenwright. Set and costume designs by Bob Crowley. The production is the first time a musical sequel has been staged in the West End. The musical received mixed reviews. The planned Broadway production, which was to have opened simultaneously, was indefinitely postponed.

UNITY Establishes Endowment Fund at Oklahoma City Community Foundation

UNITY is pleased to announce it has established an endowment fund at the Oklahoma City Community Foundation.

An endowment is a permanent fund that is invested and managed to provide annual income to a charitable organization such as UNITY as long as the organization is in existence. An endowment fund also provides donors a way to make a variety of charitable gifts. The Oklahoma City Community Foundation administers the country’s largest charitable organization endowment program with more than 300 organizations participating. In 2008, the Oklahoma City Community Foundation distributed $5.4 million to the organizations.

“By establishing an endowment fund, our organization has taken an important step in guaranteeing that we will be able to continue advancing our mission for generations to come,” says J.R. Cook, executive director. “It is our goal that the endowment income will underwrite our operations and ensure that UNITY has the resources required to maintain its growth as an organization and can continue its important work of serving the nation‘s Native American youth for as long as the need exists. In general, the creation of the endowment is part of a long term strategy to assure that UNITY's decades of dedicated efforts will proceed and keep moving ever forward for the ongoing benefit of those it serves.”

Among other purposes, UNITY envisions using the endowment funds for: purchasing property on which a Native Youth Leadership Center will be built; growing and supporting UNITY’s national network of affiliated youth councils; ensuring that critical organizational programs such as the annual National UNITY Conference are adequately supported; and building organizational capacity.

Read the information provided on this website to learn more about UNITY’s history and its programs.


UNITY has served the leadership needs of American Indian and Alaska Native youth for 34 years. Today UNITY is a national organization with over 150 youth councils operating in 35 states and Canada. These youth councils represent thousands of Native American youth.

UNITY began through the efforts of J.R. Cook, a Cherokee from Oklahoma, who has worked with Native youth in leadership development for more than three decades. The organization grew from a small group of interested Indian youth in southwestern Oklahoma in 1976 to a national organization today with affiliated youth councils operating in 35 states and Canada.

UNITY evolved from a series of Indian programs that Cook directed. After a successful basketball coaching stint, Cook devoted a decade of his life to the Upward Bound project at Southwestern Oklahoma State University in Weatherford, Oklahoma. At that time, it seemed to Cook there was more pressure for Indian youth to fail than to succeed.

He became aware of the tremendous waste of talent and negative peer pressure among native youth and saw a need for an organization to help Native youth use their talents in a positive way. Cook began working with the Weatherford community to purchase and renovate a building that housed the Southwest Indian Cultural Center. Through the center, a dropout prevention and cultural retention education grant was received to work with students in 10 public schools in western Oklahoma.

The project was so successful -- especially in regard to a marked increase in self-esteem among participants -- that youth in the project authorized Cook to take the necessary steps to expand these efforts to regional and national levels. On April 16, 1976, United National Indian Tribal Youth, Inc. was incorporated as a non-profit organization in the state of Oklahoma to develop leadership among native American youth. UNITY relocated its headquarters in 1978 to Oklahoma City.

One of the first milestones for UNITY youth came at the 1980 National UNITY Conference in Great Falls, Mont. Youth shaped their future by writing a "Declaration for Independence" to take charge of their destiny. Youth pledged to be involved in the governmental decision-making process and promote economic development. The "Declaration" gained national attention in Paul Harvey's daily commentary.

Today, Native American youth across the country are taking charge of their lives by serving others. They are helping their reservations, villages and communities by establishing tutoring programs, dance troupes, clean up days, healthy lifestyles campaigns, to name a few. Native American youth are making a difference in the areas of community service, heritage, healthy lifestyles and environment.

UNITY is located in downtown Oklahoma City in the E.K. Gaylord Building, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Egyptians in US cheer on democracy and Arab unity

NEW YORK – Waves of celebration rippled out of Egypt and washed onto U.S. shores Friday as Egyptian-Americans looked to a future of democracy and Arab unity after the departure of President Hosni Mubarak and his three decades of authoritarian rule.

Crowds gathered in New York, suburban Detroit and the nation's capital to mark Egyptians' success at toppling a leader after three weeks of sometimes-violent protests across Egypt that many feared would end in futility.

"I feel freer than I've ever felt in my life, although I'm 10,000 miles away from my homeland," said Ashraf Abdelhalim, 47, on Manhattan's Upper East Side near one of the largest mosques in the New York area, where at least 60,000 Egyptian-Americans live.

Even while in America, he said, he felt "the oppression and the fear" from Mubarak's reign. "Now the dictator is gone," he said.

Sherine El-Abd found herself sobbing with joy at her home in Clifton, N.J. A board member of the Washington-based nonprofit Arab American Institute, she predicted that the military in Egypt will "oversee a clean, democratic election."
"Listen, if the person with the thickest skin and the densest brain in the world — Mubarak — got the message the military gave him, the message is loud and clear," El-Abd said.

People gathering at the Lebanese American Heritage Club in Dearborn, Mich., the heart of the nation's largest Arab-American community, expressed hopes for a domino effect in the Arab world.

"The Arabs were taken for granted," said Arab American News publisher Osama Siblani. "And you know what happened? The Arabs presented to the world one of the most wonderful revolutions in modern history."

In Washington, a small group gathered before a rally at the Egyptian Embassy, signing the Egyptian national anthem. Two young girls held signs reading, "EGYPT CHANGE."

"This is a new day for Arabs all together," said Radia Daoussi, a 40-year-old Tunisian who said she wanted to show solidarity with the Egyptian people.

Hisham Morgan, 34, director of the Muslim-American Society Youth Center in New York, agreed it was time to congratulate the Egyptian people — and the world.

"I am very hopeful for Egypt," he said. "I see a lot of love between the Egyptians — Christians, Muslims, the youth, everyone."

Gatherings were also happening Friday in Los Angeles, in addition to larger, better-organized ones nationwide set for Saturday. Nearly 200,000 U.S. residents identify themselves as Egyptian, according to a 2009 survey by the Census Bureau.

Omar Zaki, a 44-year-old insurance agency owner who lives in Riverside, Calif., said he couldn't believe his eyes when he read the caption under the television images of jubilant protesters in Cairo's Tahrir Square.

"I almost had to pinch myself," he said. He believes the movement will ripple throughout the Middle East, noting the old Arabic saying that Egypt is the "mother of the world."

"What happens there makes a significant difference," he said.

Spontaneous celebrations dotted the New York area. People met up near the Egyptian Mission to the United Nations in Manhattan or waved flags Friday after noon prayers on Steinway Street in Queens' Astoria neighborhood.

Ayman El-Sawa, an activist from Highlands, N.J., who has helped organize protests including one in Times Square, fielded more than 50 celebratory phone calls in just the first half hour after Mubarak shocked his homeland by finally crumbling and resigning.

"But we should celebrate with one eye — and keep the other eye open for the next step: We have to be sure the army agrees with all the people's demands and does not repeat history," he said.

In Brooklyn, physical therapist Khaled Lamada, president of the Virginia-based Egyptian-Americans for Development, got news about Mubarak on his cell phone while walking to noon prayers.

"I feel great," he said. "I feel honored, I feel proud to be Egyptian."

Contributing to this report were Associated Press writers Amy Taxin in Los Angeles, David Runk in Dearborn, Mich., Brett Zongker in Washington and Anita Snow at the United Nations, and photographer Frank Franklin II in New York.

Peace Love World

peace love world

World Peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations and/or people. World peace is an idea of planetary non-violence by which nations willingly cooperate, either voluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance that prevents warfare. Although the term is sometimes used to refer to a cessation of all hostility among all individuals, world peace.

While world peace is theoretically possible, some believe that human nature inherently prevents it. This belief stems from the idea that humans are naturally violent, or that rational agents will choose to commit violent acts in certain circumstances.

Others however believe that war is not an innate part of human nature, and that this myth in fact prevents people from reaching for world peace.

Many theories as to how world peace could be achieved have been proposed. Several of these are listed below. World peace is achievable when there is no longer conflict over resources. For example, oil is one such resource and conflict over the supply of oil is well known. Therefore, developing technology that utilizes reusable fuel sources may be one way to achieve world peace.

World peace is sometimes claimed to be the inevitable result of a certain political ideology. According to former U.S. President George W. Bush: "The march of democracy will lead to world peace." Leon Trotsky, a Marxist theorist, assumed that the world revolution would lead to a communist world peace.

Proponents of the controversial democratic peace theory claim that strong empirical evidence exists that democracies never or rarely wage war against each other. (the only exceptions being the Cod Wars, the Turbot War and Operation Fork) Jack Levy (1988) made an oft-quoted assertion that the theory is "as close as anything we have to an empirical law in international relations".

An increasing number of nations have become democratic since the Industrial Revolution. A world peace may thus become possible if this trend continues and if the democratic peace theory is correct.

There are, however, several possible exceptions to this theory.

In her "capitalism peace theory," Ayn Rand holds that the major wars of history were started by the more controlled economies of the time against the freer ones and that capitalism gave mankind the longest period of peace in history—a period during which there were no wars, involving the entire civilized world—from the end of the Napoleonic wars in 1815 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

It must be remembered that the political systems of the nineteenth century were not pure capitalism, but mixed economies. The element of capitalism, however, was dominant; it was as close to a century of capitalism as mankind has come. But the element of statism kept growing throughout the nineteenth century, and by the time it blasted the world in 1914, the governments involved were dominated by statist policies.

However, this theory ignores the brutal colonial wars waged by the western nations against countries outside Europe; as well as the German and Italian Wars of Unification, the Franco-Prussian war, and other conflicts in Europe. It also places a lack of war as the barometer for peace, when in reality class antagonisms were ever present.

Some proponents[who?] of Cobdenism claim that by removing tariffs and creating international free trade, wars would become impossible, because free trade prevents a nation from becoming self-sufficient, which is a requirement for long wars. For example, if one country produces firearms and another produces ammunition, the two could not fight each other, because the former would be unable to procure ammunition and the latter would be unable to obtain weapons.

Critics[who?] argue that free trade does not prevent a nation from establishing some sort of emergency plan to become temporarily self-sufficient in case of war or that a nation could simply acquire what it needs from a different nation. A good example of this, is World War I. Both Britain and Germany managed to become partially self-sufficient during the war. This is particularly important, due to the fact Germany had no plan for creating a War Economy.

More generally, other proponents[who?] argue that free trade—while not making wars impossible—will make wars, and restrictions on trade caused by wars, very costly for international companies with production, research, and sales in many different nations. Thus, a powerful lobby—not present if there are only national companies—will argue against wars .

Peace & Love is the biggest festival in Sweden and the only one with an outspoken message of Solidarity, Diversity and Understanding, which runs through the whole event. It started in 1999 and is located in Borlänge, Sweden.

In 2010, the event took place between June 28 and July 3 - the same weekend as other major scandinavian festivals Roskilde Festival and Hove Festival.

In 2009 Peace & Love became Sweden's biggest festival with 41 685 tickets sold. In 2010 the festival broke that record yet again, selling 42 000 tickets.

The concept of the Peace & Love festival is to spread the message of Diversity, Solidarity and Understanding. It’s about crossing borders and bringing differing cultures from near and afar together and trying to get people to change their attitudes towards themselves and others.

The Peace & Love festival is still one of Scandinavia's fastest-growing festivals. In 2006 there were 15,000 visitors per day, with over 37,000 people attending in total. The 10th Peace & Love festival was in 2008 and had a record of 25000 visitors, which made them the second biggest festival in Sweden.

Over the years, foreign artists such as Patti Smith, New York Dolls, Vitalic, Jay-Z, Tech N9ne, Lily Allen, Them Crooked Vultures, Alice Cooper, Slayer, W.A.S.P. Surkin, NOFX, Ed Harcourt, Vive la Fête, Hanoi Rocks, Motörhead, Cut Copy, and Khonnor have entertained the crowd as well as big Swedish acts such as Familjen, Rootvälta, Den Svenska Björnstammen, Miike Snow, Name The Pet, The Cardigans, Thåström, Håkan Hellström, The Sounds, Mando Diao, Lars Winnerbäck, Ulf Lundell, The Hives, Looptroop, The Hellacopters and Silverbullit, among many others. The band which has played the most often at the Peace & Love festival is Sugarplum Fairy, a rock band from Borlänge whose two singers, Carl and Victor, are younger brothers of Gustaf Norén from the better-known band Mando Diao, also a rock band from Borlänge. Sugarplum Fairy has played every year since 2001.

Some of the bands that have played:

I love dirty talk

Love Never Dies

Love Never Dies is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber, lyrics by Glenn Slater and later Charles Hart, and book by Lloyd Webber, Slater and Ben Elton. It is a sequel to the Lloyd Webber musical The Phantom of the Opera. The plot is not based on the story-line in the original book by Gaston Leroux, and Lloyd Webber has stated "I don't regard this as a sequel – it's a stand-alone piece". The musical is set in 1907, which Lloyd Webber states is "ten years roughly after the end of the original Phantom," although the events of the original actually took place in 1881. Christine Daaé is invited to perform at Phantasma, a new attraction in Coney Island, by an anonymous impresario and, with her husband Raoul and son Gustave in tow, journeys to Brooklyn, unaware that it is the Phantom who has arranged her appearance in the popular beach resort.

Although Lloyd Webber began working on Love Never Dies in 1990, it was not until 2007 that he began writing the music. The musical opened at the Adelphi Theatre in the West End on 9 March 2010 with previews from 22 February 2010. It was originally directed by Jack O'Brien and choreographed by Jerry Mitchell, however the show closed for four days in November 2010 for substantial re-writes, which were overseen by Lloyd Webber, and opened with new direction from Bill Kenwright. Set and costume designs by Bob Crowley. The production is the first time a musical sequel has been staged in the West End. The musical received mixed reviews. The planned Broadway production, which was to have opened simultaneously, was indefinitely postponed.

Andrew Lloyd Webber first began plans for a sequel to his 1986 hit musical, The Phantom of the Opera, in 1990. Following a conversation with Maria Björnson, the designer of The Phantom of the Opera, Lloyd Webber decided that, were a sequel to come about, it would be set in New York City at the turn of the 20th century. One of his ideas was to have Phantom live above ground in Manhattan's first penthouse, but he rejected this when he saw a TV documentary about the Coney Island fairground. Lloyd Webber began collaborating with author Frederick Forsyth on the project, but it soon fell apart as Lloyd Webber felt the ideas they were developing would be difficult to adapt for a stage musical. Forsyth went on to publish some of the ideas he had worked on with Lloyd Webber in 1999 as a novel entitled The Phantom of Manhattan.

Lloyd Webber returned to the project in 2006, collaborating with a number of writers and directors. However, he still did not feel the ideas he had were adaptable into a piece of musical theatre. Finally, in early 2007, Lloyd Webber approached Ben Elton (who had served as the librettist for Lloyd Webber's The Beautiful Game) to help shape a synopsis for a sequel, based on Lloyd Webber's initial ideas. Elton's treatment of the story focused more on the original characters of The Phantom of the Opera and omitted new characters that Lloyd Webber and Forsyth had developed. Lloyd Webber was pleased with Elton's treatment and began work on the sequel. In March 2007, he announced he would be moving forward with the project.

The Daily Mail announced in May 2007 that the sequel would be delayed, because Lloyd Webber's six-month-old kitten Otto, a rare-breed Turkish Van, climbed onto Lloyd Webber's Clavinova digital piano and managed to delete the entire score. Lloyd Webber was unable to recover any of it from the instrument, but was eventually able to reconstruct the score. In 2008, Lloyd Webber first announced that the sequel would likely be called Phantom: Once Upon Another Time, and the first act was performed at Lloyd Webber's annual Sydmonton Festival. The Phantom was played by Ramin Karimloo and Raoul was played by Alistair Robbins.[18] However, in September 2008, during the BBC's Birthday in the Park concert celebrating his 60th birthday, Lloyd Webber announced that the title would be Love Never Dies. In other workshop readings, Raoul and Christine were played by Aaron Lazar and Elena Shaddow.

On 3 July 2009, Lloyd Webber announced that Karimloo (who had played the Phantom in the West End) and Sierra Boggess (who had originated the role of Christine in Phantom – The Las Vegas Spectacular) had been cast as the Phantom and Christine and that the role of Meg Giry would be played by Summer Strallen, Madame Giry by Liz Robertson and Raoul by Joseph Millson. I'd Do Anything finalist Niamh Perry was given the role of Fleck.

Lloyd Webber originally intended for Love Never Dies to open in London, New York and Shanghai simultaneously in the autumn of 2009. By March 2009, he had decided to open the show at London's Adelphi Theatre, followed by Toronto's Royal Alexandra Theatre (before transferring to Broadway's Neil Simon Theatre in 2010) and Shanghai. The three casts would rehearse simultaneously in London for three months beginning August 2009. Opening dates were soon announced as 26 October 2009 in London, November in Toronto and February 2010 in Shanghai, with a later transfer to Melbourne, Australia. Plans were then announced for a separate Broadway production to run concurrently with the Toronto show if Toronto proved successful. In May, the debut of the London production was delayed until March 2010 due to Lloyd Webber re-orchestrating the score and re-recording the album. Technical issues with the special effects, automaton version of Christine and casting multiple simultaneous productions also contributed to the postponement. By October 2009, Shanghai plans had been dropped in favour of an Australian production. The New York and Australian productions were later delayed due to the difficulty of casting multiple companies simultaneously.

On 8 October 2009, Lloyd Webber held a press conference at Her Majesty's Theatre, where the original Phantom has been running since 1986, confirming the casting of Boggess as Christine and Karimloo as the Phantom. Karimloo sang "Til I Hear You Sing", and "The Coney Island Waltz" was also performed for the journalists, industry insiders and fans who had assembled for the presentation. Lloyd Webber announced that Love Never Dies would begin previews in London on 20 February 2010 and anticipated that the Broadway production would open on 11 November 2010 (this was later postponed until Spring and then indefinitely). Rehearsals began in January 2010. Previews were delayed two further days by the brief, last-minute illness of Boggess.

On February 1, 2011, the Australian leads were announced and they will be Ben Lewis and Anna O'Byrne.

The first preview of Love Never Dies was delayed from 20 February to 22 February 2010 due to the illness of Boggess and technical demands. The show had its official opening on 9 March 2010. It is directed by Jack O'Brien, choreographed by Jerry Mitchell, and has set and costume designs by Bob Crowley. The cast includes Ramin Karimloo as the Phantom, Sierra Boggess as Christine, Joseph Millson as Raoul, Liz Robertson as Madame Giry, Summer Strallen as Meg Giry and Niamh Perry as Fleck. The production is the first time a musical sequel has been staged in the West End. The show sold £9 million in advance ticket sales, surpassing its initial investment of £6 million. In April 2010, Lloyd Webber was fined £20,000 for illegally painting the Grade II-listed Adelphi Theatre black to promote this musical.

A Broadway production was expected to open in spring 2011, after being delayed by Lloyd Webber's treatment after prostate cancer surgery, and an Australian production is also expected sometime in 2011.[41] Lloyd Webber has also announced that Asian and Canadian productions are planned. After the mixed reviews and negative reaction from some Phantom fans during previews, an executive producer stated that before its bow on Broadway, the show would likely undergo "some changes".[42] On October 1, 2010 it was announced that the musical would not open on Broadway in Spring 2011 and that the show's Broadway future would be announced at a later date.

On October 12, 2010 a press conference was held in Parliament House, Victoria, where Lloyd-Webber appeared via satellite to announce the Australian production will open in May 2011 at Melbourne's Regent Theatre. This production, the first outside of the UK, will feature brand new direction and design by an Australian creative team including director Simon Phillips.

The musical was reviewed again (at Lloyd Webber's invitation), with critic Henry Hitchings noting that "Some of the most obvious alterations stem from the recruitment of lyricist Charles Hart to adjust the cadences of the original clunky lines written by Glenn Slater." He further pointed out that "There are also lots of bracing directorial touches; the show is credited to Jack O’Brien, but it is new choreographer Bill Deamer and producer Bill Kenwright who have added the zest."

It should be noted that on the 22nd of October 2010 it was announced that the show would temporarily close down for four days to go through some plot changes and subsequently lyric rewrites and changes. Charles Hart, one of the lyricists for the original Phantom, admitted producer Bill Kenwright may even be changing the ending of the show.

Ten years after the events at the Paris Opera, The Phantom, the creator and owner of Phantasma is tortured by the absence of Christine and longs to hear her again ("Til I Hear You Sing").

At Coney Island, Madame Giry and the performers of Phantasma introduce the wonders of Coney Island("The Coney Island Waltz"). Meg Giry, Christine Daaé's friend from the Paris Opera, is a performer with Madame Giry at her side. She and the performers of Phantasma win the crowd over with their performance of "Only for You". Giry tells Meg how wonderfully she performed. Madame Giry is irritated at how the Phantom has not watched the performances, reminiscing of how she and Meg smuggled him from Paris.

Christine, Raoul and their ten-year-old son Gustave arrive in New York and are met by crowds of paparazzi. They are greeted by the freaks, who arrive by horse and carriage to take them to Coney Island (“Are you ready to begin?”). Raoul is angry at the reception and upsets Gustave by not playing with him. As Raoul leaves to go drinking, Christine tells Gustave to “Look with your heart” to try to help him understand. Gustave goes to bed, and the Phantom arrives to recount a night of passion they shared the night before her wedding (“Beneath a Moonless Sky”). They recall that “Once upon another time” they thought their love had a chance of succeeding. Gustave wakes up screaming from a nightmare and meets the Phantom for the first time ("Mother Please, I'm Scared!"). The Phantom promises to show Gustave more of Phantasma. He tells Christine that she must sing for him again or she will return home without the boy.

In the rehearsal studio for Phantasma, Meg is surprised and jealous to learn that Christine will be singing. Raoul encounters Giry and discovers that the Phantom is the one for whom Christine is to be singing ("Dear Old Friend"). The freaks bring Gustave to the Aerie where he is greeted by the Phantom. Gustave plays a melody on the piano that leads the Phantom to suspect he is Gustave's father ("Beautiful"). The Phantom questions Gustave and finds they are kindred spirits. He unmasks himself, believing Gustave will accept him ("The Beauty Underneath"), but Gustave is horrified and screams. Christine comforts Gustave and, when pressed by the Phantom, confesses that Gustave is his son ("The Phantom Confronts Christine"). The Phantom makes Christine promise to never tell Gustave that he and not Raoul is his real father. The Phantom declares that everything he owns will go to him. Having overheard everything, a furious Giry fears all her work over the years has been for nothing.

In a dingy bar, Raoul contemplates his relationship with Christine ("Why Does She Love Me?"). He is joined by Meg who tells him he is in "Suicide Hall", the place "where people end up when they don't know where else to go." Meg swims each day to wash away the stress of working. She tells Raoul that he must leave with Christine and Gustave. Raoul says he is not afraid of the Phantom, who has been behind the bar. As soon as Meg leaves, the Phantom reveals himself and they make a bet: if Christine does not sing, Raoul may leave with Christine and Gustave. Otherwise, Raoul must leave alone. The Phantom leads Raoul to question Gustave's paternity ("Devil Take the Hindmost").

Fleck, Squelch and Gangle appear to advertise Christine's appearance at Phantasma ("Invitation to the Concert")). That night, Meg performs a strip-tease about her choice of swimming costumes, going topless at one point ("Bathing Beauty"). The audience goes crazy for Meg, but Giry tells Meg that the Phantom did not watch the performance and it was for nothing ("Mother, Did You Watch?").

"Before the Performance", Gustave explores backstage, while Raoul asks Christine to leave with him if she loves him. As Raoul leaves, the Phantom enters and tells Christine that Raoul's love is not enough and that she must sing for him. In her dressing room, Christine recalls the Opera where she had to decide between Raoul and the Phantom. Giry, Raoul and the Phantom wonder whether Christine will sing ("Devil Take The Hindmost" (reprise)). Christine performs an aria for the crowd, as Raoul and the Phantom watch ("Love Never Dies"). Raoul leaves as Christine finishes to thunderous applause. Christine is greeted by the Phantom and a letter from Raoul informing her of his departure ("Ah Christine"). Gustave is missing, and she becomes worried ("Gustave, Gustave"). The Phantom suspects Giry and threatens her. Fleck notes that she was passing Meg's dressing room when she noticed the mirror had been smashed and saw Meg dragging a small figure away. The Phantom believes he knows where Meg took him.

At Suicide Hall, Meg prepares to drown Gustave, when the others confront her. She holds up a gun so the Phantom will listen as she reveals that the resources Giry has afforded him came from Meg's working as a prostitute to influential men. The Phantom tries to get the gun, but Meg accidentally shoots Christine. Christine reveals to Gustave that the Phantom is his father. She tells the Phantom that her love for him will never die. They have one final kiss, and she dies in his arms. Raoul returns to discover he has lost everything, cradling the body of Christine as Gustave goes to join his real father - The Phantom.


The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. It was signed in the city of Amiens on 25 March 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar), by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquess Cornwallis as a "Definitive Treaty of Peace". The consequent Peace of Amiens lasted only one year, and was the only period of peace during the so-called 'Great French War' between 1793 and 1815. Under the treaty, the United Kingdom (UK) recognised the French Republic; George III had only two years previously dropped the English crown's historical claim, dating back to 1340 and Edward III, to the now-defunct French Kingdom. Together with the Treaty of Lunéville (1801), the Treaty of Amiens marked the end of the Second Coalition, which had waged war against Revolutionary France since 1798.

The War of the Second Coalition started well for the coalition, with successes in Egypt. After France's victories at Marengo and Hohenlinden, Austria, Russia and Naples asked for peace, with Austria eventually signing the Treaty of Lunéville. Nelson's victory at Copenhagen (2 April 1801) halted the creation of the League of Armed Neutrality and led to a negotiated ceasefire.

The French First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte, first made truce proposals to British foreign secretary Lord Grenville as early as 1799. Because of the hardline stance of Grenville and Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, their distrust of Bonaparte, and obvious defects in the proposals, they were rejected out of hand. However, Pitt resigned in February 1801 (over King George's unwillingness to support Catholic emancipation in Ireland), and was replaced by the more accommodating Henry Addington. Addington's foreign secretary, Robert Jenkinson, Lord Hawkesbury, immediately opened communications with Louis Guillaume Otto, the French commissary for prisoners of war in London, through whom Bonaparte had made his earlier proposals. Hawkesbury stated that he wanted to open discussions on terms for a peace agreement. Otto, generally under detailed instructions from Bonaparte, engaged in negotiations with Hawkesbury through the summer of 1801. Unhappy with the dialogue with Otto, Hawkesbury sent diplomat Anthony Merry to Paris, who opened a second line of communications with the French foreign minister Talleyrand. By mid-September, written negotiations had progressed to the point where Hawkesbury and Otto met to draft a preliminary agreement. On 30 September they signed the preliminary agreement in London; it was published the next day.

The terms of the preliminary agreement required the UK to restore most of the French colonial possessions it had taken, to evacuate Malta (which was to be restored to the Order of St. John, whose sovereignty was to be guaranteed by one or more European Great Powers, to be determined at the final peace), and withdraw from other occupied Mediterranean ports. France was to restore Egypt to Ottoman control, withdraw from most of the Italian peninsula, and to preserve Portuguese sovereignty. Ceylon, previously a Dutch territory, was to remain with the British, Newfoundland fishery rights were to be restored status quo ante bellum, and the UK was to recognize the Seven Islands Republic, established by France on islands in the Adriatic Sea that are now part of Greece. Both sides were to be allowed access to the outposts on the Cape of Good Hope. In a blow to Spain, the preliminary agreement included a secret clause in which Trinidad was to remain with Britain.

News of the preliminary peace was greeted in the UK with illuminations and fireworks; in Dublin a street was named for the treaty. Peace, it was thought in Britain, would lead to the withdrawal of the income tax imposed by Pitt, a reduction of grain prices, and a revival of markets.

In November 1801 the Marquess Cornwallis was sent to France with plenipotentiary powers to negotiate a final agreement. The expectation among the British populace that peace was at hand put enormous pressure on Cornwallis, something Bonaparte realised and capitalised on. His negotiators, his brother Joseph and Talleyrand, constantly shifted their positions, leaving Cornwallis to write, "I feel it as the most unpleasant circumstance attending this unpleasant business that, after I have obtained his acquiescence on any point, I can have no confidence that it is finally settled and that he will not recede from it in our next conversation." The Batavian Republic, whose economy depended on trade that had been ruined by the war, appointed Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, their ambassador to France, to represent them in the peace negotiations; he arrived in Amiens on 9 December. The Dutch role in the negotiations was marked by a lack of respect on the part of the French, who thought of them as a "vanquished and conquered" client whose present government "owed them everything". Schimmelpenninck and Cornwallis negotiated agreements on the status of Ceylon (to remain British), the Cape of Good Hope (to be returned to the Dutch, but open to all), and the indemnification of the depose House of Orange-Nassau for its losses. However, Joseph Bonaparte did not immediately agree with their terms, presumably needing to consult with the First Consul on the matter.

In January 1802 Bonaparte went to Lyon and accepted the presidency of the Italian Republic, a nominally independent client republic covering northern Italy established in 1797. This act violated the Treaty of Lunéville, in which Bonaparte agreed to guarantee the independence of that and other client republics. He also continued to support the French Gen. Pierre Augereau's reactionary coup d'état of 18 September 1801 in the Batavian Republic, and its new constitution, ratified by a sham election, that brought it into closer alignment with its dominant partner.

British newspaper readers followed the events, presented in strong moralising colours. Hawkesbury wrote of Bonaparte's action at Lyons that it was a "gross breach of faith", exhibiting an "inclination to insult Europe."[9] Writing from London, he informed Cornwallis that it "created the greatest alarm in this country [UK], and there are many persons who were pacifically disposed and who since this event are desirous of renewing the war."

The Spanish negotiator, the marquis de Azara, did not arrive in Amiens until early February 1802. After some preliminary negotiations he proposed to Cornwallis that Britain and Spain make a separate agreement; Cornwallis rejected this, believing that to do so would jeopardise the more important negotiations with France.

However, pressure continued to mount on the British negotiators for a peace deal, in part because budget discussions were underway in the UK parliament, and the prospect of continued war was a significant factor. The principal sticking point in the late negotiations was the status of Malta. Bonaparte eventually proposed that the British were to withdraw within three months of the signing, with control passed back to a recreated Order of St. John, whose sovereignty was to be guaranteed by all of the major European powers. Left unspecified in this was the means by which the Order would be reestablished (it had essentially dissolved upon French seizure of the island in 1798); furthermore, none of the other powers had been consulted on the matter.

On March 14, London, under pressure to finalise the budget, gave Cornwallis a hard deadline. Given a treaty representing the last position taken by the French, if he could not reach an agreement within eight days, he was to return to London. Following a five-hour negotiating session that ended at 3 am on March 25, Cornwallis and Joseph Bonaparte signed the final agreement. Cornwallis was unhappy with the agreement, but he also worried about "the ruinous consequences of .. renewing a bloody and hopeless war".

The treaty, beyond confirming "peace, friendship, and good understanding", called for:

    * The restoration of prisoners and hostages.
    * The United Kingdom to return the Cape Colony to the Batavian Republic.
    * The UK to return most of its captured Dutch West Indian islands to the Batavian Republic.
    * The UK to withdraw its forces from Egypt.
    * The ceding to the UK of Trinidad, Tobago and Ceylon.
    * France to withdraw its forces from the Papal States.
    * The borders of French Guiana to be fixed.
    * Malta, Gozo, and Comino to be restored to the Hospitallers and to be declared neutral, although the islands remained under the British Empire.
    * The island of Minorca be returned to Spain.
    * The House of Orange-Nassau was to be compensated for its losses in the Netherlands.

Two days after signing the treaty, all four parties signed an addendum specifically acknowledging that the failure to use the languages of all of the signatory powers (the treaty was only published in English and French) was not prejudicial and should not be viewed as setting a precedent. It also stated that the omission of any individual's titles was unintentional and also not intended to be prejudicial. The Dutch and French representatives also signed a separate convention clarifying that the Batavian Republic was not to be financially responsible for the compensation paid to the House of Orange-Nassau.

Upper-class British visitors flocked to Paris in the summer and autumn of 1802. William Herschel took the opportunity to confer with his colleagues at the Observatoire. In booths and temporary arcades in the courtyard of the Louvre the third French exposition des produits français took place, 18–24 September. According to the memoirs of his private secretary Fauvelet de Bourrienne, Bonaparte "was, above all, delighted with the admiration the exhibition excited among the numerous foreigners who resorted to Paris during the peace."

Among the visitors was Charles James Fox, who received a personal tour from Minister Chaptal. Within the Louvre, in addition to the display of recent works in the Salon of 1802, visitors could see the display of Italian paintings, J.M.W. Turner filled a sketchbook, and Roman sculptures collected from all over Italy under the stringent terms of the Treaty of Tolentino. Even the four Greek Horses of St Mark, which had been furtively removed in 1797, could now be viewed in an inner courtyard. William Hazlitt arrived at Paris on 16 October 1802. The Roman sculptures did not move him, but he spent most of three months studying and copying Italian masters in the Louvre.

French visitors also came to England. Wax artist Marie Tussaud came to London and established an exhibition similar to one she had in Paris. The balloonist André-Jacques Garnerin staged displays in London, and made a balloon flight from London to Colchester in 45 minutes.

Among the stream of British visitors to France was the family party that included Maria Edgeworth, who spent the winter in Paris. She was able to leave France hastily and landed safely at Dover, 6 March 1803; Lovell Edgeworth was not so lucky. Another author, Frances Burney, travelled to Paris in April 1803 to see her husband, Comte Alexandre d'Arblay, and when hostilities resumed was required to remain until 1815.

The Spanish economy, which had been badly affected by the war, began to recover with the advent of peace. Much as it had been at the start of the wars in 1793, Spain remained diplomatically caught between Britain and France. King Carlos IV had been unhappy with France's unwillingness to negotiate the cession of Trinidad to Britain. Spanish economic interests were further concerned when Bonaparte, as conditions deteriorated in early 1803, sold Louisiana to the United States, whose merchants competed with those of Spain. Following that sale, Carlos wrote that he was prepared to throw off alliance with France: "neither break with France, nor break with England."

The British government balked at implementing certain terms of the treaty, such as evacuating their naval presence from Malta. After the initial fervour, objections to the treaty quickly grew in the UK, where it seemed to the governing class that they were making all the concessions and ratifying recent developments. Prime Minister Addington did not undertake military demobilization, but maintained a large peacetime army of 180,000.

Actions taken by Bonaparte after the treaty was signed heightened tensions with Britain and signatories to the other treaties. He used the time of peace to consolidate power and reorganize domestic administration in France and some of its client states. However, his effective annexation of the Cisalpine Republic and his decision to send French troops into the Helvetian Republic (to put down unrest against French-dominated rule) in October 1802, another violation of Lunéville, raised eyebrows in London and St. Petersburg, where concerns were voiced over Bonaparte's appetite for conquest. Tsar Alexander had just congratulated Bonaparte for withdrawing from there and other places, but the action increased the belief in his cabinet that Bonaparte was not to be trusted. Bonaparte met British protests over the action with belligerent statements again denying Britain's right to be formally involved in matters on the continent, pointing out that Switzerland had been occupied by French troops at the time of the treaty signing at Amiens.[25] He also went so far as to demand the British government censor the strongly anti-French British press, and expel French expatriates from British soil; these demands were perceived in London as affronts to British sovereignty.[26] Bonaparte also took advantage of the loosening of the British blockade of French ports to organize and dispatch a naval expedition to regain control over revolutionary Haiti and to occupy French Louisiana. These moves were perceived by the British as a willingness by Bonaparte to threaten them on a global stage.

Both sides refused to remove troops from territories they had agreed to evacuate. France continued to occupy the Batavian Republic, and Britain never removed its troops from either Egypt or Malta. Bonaparte formally protested the continuing British occupations, and in January 1803 published a report by Horace Sebastiani that included observations on the ease with which France might capture Egypt, alarming most of the European powers. In an interview in February 1803 with Lord Whitworth, the UK's French ambassador, Bonaparte threatened war if Malta was not evacuated, and implied that he could have already retaken Egypt. The exchange left Whitworth feeling he been given an ultimatum. In a public meeting with a group of diplomats the following month, Bonaparte again pressed Whitworth, implying that the British wanted war since they were not upholding their treaty obligations.[29] The Russian ambassador, Arkadiy Ivanovich Morkov, reported this encounter back to St. Petersburg in stark terms; the implicit and explicit threats contained in the exchange may have played a role in Russia's eventual entry into the Third Coalition. Morkov also reported rumors that Bonaparte would seize Hamburg as well as Hanover if war was renewed. Although Alexander wanted to avoid war, this news apparently forced his hand; he began collecting troops on the Baltic coast in late March. The Russian foreign minister wrote of the situation, "The intention already expressed by the First Consul of striking blows against England wherever he can, and under this pretext of sending his troops into Hanover [and] Northern Germany ... entirely transforms the nature of this war as it relates to our interests and obligations."

After Bonaparte's private exchange with Whitworth, the British government informed Bonaparte that they would only evacuate Malta if he gave up his expansionist activities; they also increased recruiting for the Royal Navy. The public exchange prompted an exodus of foreigners from France. Bonaparte's rejection of a British offer involving a ten-year lease of Malta prompted the reactivation of the British blockade of the French coast; Bonaparte, who was not fully prepared to resume the war, made moves designed to show renewed preparations for an invasion of Britain. Matters reached a diplomatic crisis point when the British rejected the idea of mediation by Tsar Alexander, and instead on 10 May ordered Whitworth to withdraw from Paris if the French did not accede to their demands in 36 hours. Last minute attempts at negotiation by Talleyrand failed, and Whitworth left France on 13 May. Britain declared war on France on 18 May.

Not long after the British war declaration, the Royal Navy captured two French ships. In response, on 22 May 1803 (2 Prairial, year XI), the First Consul suddenly ordered the imprisonment of all British males between the ages of 18 and 60 in France, trapping many travelling civilians. This act was denounced as illegal by all the major powers. Bonaparte claimed in the French press that the British prisoners he had taken amounted to 10,000, but French documents compiled in Paris a few months later show that the numbers were 1,181. It was not until the abdication of Bonaparte in 1814 that the last of these imprisoned British civilians were allowed to return home.

Addington proved an ineffective prime minister in wartime, and was replaced on 10 May 1804 with William Pitt, who started the Third Coalition. Pitt has been alleged[by whom?] to have been behind assassination attempts on Bonaparte's life by Cadoudal and Pichegru.

Napoleon, now emperor, assembled armies on the coast of France to invade Great Britain, but Austria and Russia, the UK's allies, were preparing to invade France. The French armies were christened La Grande Armée and secretly left the coast to march against Austria and Russia before those armies could combine. The Grande Armée defeated Austria at Ulm the day before the Battle of Trafalgar, and Napoleon's victory at the Battle of Austerlitz effectively destroyed the Third Coalition. In 1806 Britain retook the Cape Colony from the Batavian Republic; Napoleon abolished the Republic later that year in favour of the Kingdom of Holland, ruled by his brother Louis.

Love, American Style

Love, American Style is an hour-long television anthology which was produced by Paramount Television and originally aired between September 1969 (see 1969 in television) and January 1974. For the 1971 and 1972 seasons it was a part of an ABC Friday prime-time lineup that also included The Brady Bunch, The Partridge Family, Room 222, and The Odd Couple.
Each week, the show featured different stories of romance, usually with a comedic spin. All episodes were unrelated, featuring different characters, stories and locations. The show often featured the same actors playing different characters in many episodes. In addition a large and ornate brass bed was a recurring prop in many episodes. Charles Fox's delicate yet hip music score, featuring flutes, harp, and flugelhorn set to a contemporary pop beat, provided the "love" ambiance which tied the stories together as a multifaceted romantic comedy each week.

For its first season, the theme song was performed by The Cowsills. Starting in the second season, the same theme song was sung by John Bahler, Tom Bahler, and Ron Hicklin, (billed as "The Charles Fox Singers"), and was carried on for the remainder of the series, as well as most episodes in syndication.

In many ways, the show initiated the "mini comedic soap opera" form used and "perfected" later on by Aaron Spelling for The Love Boat. While it lacked the connective threads that The Love Boat used, it generally told the same sort of "cotton candy" light emotional stories about underlying aspects of love, romance, and human relationships.

The title is loosely derived from a 1961 Italian comedy film called Divorzio all'italiana (Divorce, Italian Style), which won Academy Award nominations in 1962 for Best Director for Pietro Germi and for Best Actor for star Marcello Mastroianni. The film was later spoofed in 1967 by Divorce, American Style, starring Dick Van Dyke. The snowclone "(xxx), (nationality) Style" became a minor cultural meme as the sixties progressed.
The original series was also known for its 10–20 second drop-in silent movie style "joke clips" between the featured segments. This regular troupe featured future Rockford Files cast member Stuart Margolin, future Vega$ leading lady Phyllis Davis, and a young character actor, James Hampton (F Troop, The Longest Yard). These clips allowed the show to be padded to the required length without padding the main segments. They generally consisted of then-risque, burlesque-style comedy of manners visual jokes.

The show subsequently became a daytime standard in syndication, since it was readily edited down to a half-hour by the proper interweaving of the clips with a main segment, allowing for heavy stripping. By this technique five years of shows became effectively ten as far as stripping went
A decade after it went off the air, a new version premiered on ABC's daytime schedule in 1985 entitled New Love, American Style but was canceled after a few months due to low ratings against The Price Is Right on CBS. A third edition, starring Melissa Joan Hart among others, was shot as a pilot for the 1998–1999 television season but was not ordered into a series. Nevertheless, ABC aired the pilot on February 20, 1999.

Garry Marshall was known to enjoy saying that Love, American Style was where failed sitcom pilots went to die, a remark to which there was much truth. Frequently, if a TV producer could not interest a network in a sitcom pilot, the producer would sell the unused script to Spelling, who would use the funniest bits of the pilot as a segment on Love, American Style.

In 1971, Garry Marshall came up with a concept for a sitcom about teenagers growing up in the 1950s, and shot a pilot which he titled New Family In Town, starring Ron Howard (as Richie), Marion Ross (as Richie's mother), and Anson Williams (as Potsie, Richie's friend), Harold Gould (as Howard, Richie's father), Susan Neher (Joanie, Richie's sister), and Ric Carrott (Chuck, Richie's brother).

Marshall tried, unsuccessfully, to sell the sitcom to all three networks. At last, he sold the pilot to Spelling, who aired the show in February 1972 as "Love and the Happy Days".
Shortly afterward, the movie American Graffiti and the Broadway musical Grease led to a wave of 1950s nostalgia, and ABC executives decided to buy Marshall's pilot – Happy Days, which became a huge hit and ran for eleven years. Gould, Neher, and Carrott were all replaced when the series launched.

Another pilot aired on Love, American Style that led to a series was Hanna-Barbera's Wait Till Your Father Gets Home. Paramount declined to be involved in that series, but would later team up with Hanna-Barbera to produce several animated spin-offs of the Happy Days franchise.